Виды кровельных конструкций: как все учесть и ничего не упустить

виды кровельных конструкций

 Введение

В строительстве дома нет ни одного этапа, который был бы менее важен, чем другие. Правильно подобранный и сделанный фундамент – основа дома. Теплые и прочные стены важны не меньше – именно они защитят от ветра, холода, дождя. Также нельзя преуменьшить и важность крыши.

Чтобы правильно выбрать кровельное покрытие и не ошибиться с выбором типа крыши, нужно учитывать несколько важных моментов. Для этого стоит разобраться в том, какие вообще бывают типы крыш и виды кровли и какие требования предъявляются к современным крышам.

Как влияет угол наклона на типы крыш

Грубо говоря, крыши по форме можно поделить на две большие группы: плоская крыша и скатная крыша. Плоская крыша имеет угол наклона не больше 2-3 градусов и используется достаточно редко при строительстве коттеджей и частных домов. У нее есть определенные преимущества: во-первых, можно сэкономить на строительных материалах, во-вторых, такую крышу можно использовать как полезное пространство, расположив там зону отдыха, например.

О скатных крышах стоит узнать поподробнее: они бывают нескольких видов, и для каждого вида используется своя технология возведения. Скатные крыши гораздо более популярны, ввиду своей практичности и вариативности конструкции. Они бывают:

  • Односкатными
  • Двухскатными пологими
  • Двухскатными крутыми
  • Двухскатными ломаными
  • Четырехскатными шатровыми
  • Четырехскатными вальмовыми
  • Четырехскатными полувальмовыми

Для бытовок, гаражей и небольших дачных домиков часто используются односкатные конструкции с углом наклона не более 6 градусов. Их легко возводить, но для больших домов такая конструкция – не самый удачный выбор. При возведении домов очень распространены двухскатные крыши, с углом наклона от 10 градусов и выше. Ломаные двухскатные крыши позволяют устроить под крышей полноценное чердачное помещение или мансарду, где можно находиться в полный рост.

 Совет: Если вы собираетесь сделать под крышей полноценное жилое помещение, не забудьте как следует утеплить крышу.  
 

Классификация крыш: конструкция, виды, формы, элементы

Разберем подробнее виды крыш.

  • Как уже говорилось ранее, односкатные крыши используются для небольших зданий, которые не предназначены для постоянного проживания. Для такой крыши необходимо возвести противоположные стены разной высоты, которые и будут служить опорой для крыши. Конструкция примитивная и крайне простая в применении.
  • Для возведения двускатной крыши стены должны быть одного уровня. Крыша опирается на стены и формирует треугольник между своими сторонами. Такие крыши имеют и второе название – «щипцовые». Для такой крыши легко подобрать кровельный материал, ее легко чистить, и она гораздо более практична для жилых домов. Но и возведение такой крыши сложнее, чем односкатной. В зависимости от угла наклона двухскатные крыши бывают пологими и крутыми, при возведении крутой крыши нередко предполагается обустройство чердачного помещения. Чердачное помещение может быть утеплено дополнительно, а может и не утепляться. А вот мансарды, которые располагают под двухскатными ломаными крышами, лучше утеплить еще при строительстве.
  • Четырехскатные вальмовые крыши возводятся при помощи балок и двойной затяжки, а также при помощи довольно сложной стропильной системы. Угол наклона таких крыш достигает 45 градусов, и такая конструкция по праву считается наиболее сложной для возведения. Два ската такой крыши имеют форму трапеции, а еще два выполнены в форме треугольника. Эти треугольные элементы носят название «вальмы», и именно поэтому крыша имеет такое название.
  • Полувальмовые крыши от вальмовых отличаются тем, что треугольный скат располагают выше. Такие крыши требуют не только больших трудозатрат, но и большего количества кровельных материалов.
  • Шатровая крыша состоит из четырех одинаковых треугольников и выглядит как пирамида. Она используется для квадратных домов и отлично смотрится, но ее стропильная система еще более сложная, чем у других видов.
  • Существуют также такие виды крыш, как многощипцовая, купольная, сферическая, но их возведение своими руками практически неосуществимо.
как сделать скатную крышу

Многоскатные крыши

Виды кровельных материалов

После того, как вы выбрали для себя, какая форма крыши вам подходит, стоит определиться с тем, какую кровлю подобрать для покрытия крыши. Самыми распространенными считаются следующие виды:

  1. Рулонные: выпускаются в форме рулонов и легко раскатываются. Укладка производится в несколько слоев, после чего слои либо склеиваются, либо сплавляются. Изготавливается из битумных материалов и полимеров. Вид такого покрытия не очень эстетичен и чаще всего она используется для сараев, гаражей и бытовок.
  2. Мембранные: очень прочное покрытие, которое популярно при оформлении крыш с малым углом наклона. Долговечно и довольно удобно при укладке.
  3. Листовые: к этим материалам относятся битумно-картонные листы (еще известны как «еврошифер», металлочерепица и искусственный шифер. Все эти покрытия долговечны и не требуют особых умений при укладке, надежны при эксплуатации и довольно популярны.
  4. Штучные: как понятно из названия, это материал, который укладывается поштучно, а именно керамическая черепица. В последнее время на рынке появилась еще и гибкая черепица. Это дорого покрытие, требующее серьезных трудозатрат при укладке, которое тем не менее не теряет свою популярность. Основной плюс – элементы можно заменять поштучно, не разбирая крышу целиком.
  5. Кровельные сэндвич-панели: один из самых современных и удобных материалов. Это два металлических листа, между которыми находится утеплитель. Их легко укладывать, они обладают высокой прочностью и долговечностью, улучшают теплоизоляционные характеристики здания и позволяют окрашивать крышу, что дает просто дизайнерской фантазии при отделке дома. Срок службы таких панелей – 30 лет, а температурный режим – от -50°С до +50°С.

Что влияет на выбор кровельного материала

При выборе кровельного материала стоит обратить внимание на такие показатели, как:

  • Прочность (помните, что крыша будет каждый день подвергаться нагрузкам от ветра, осадков и своего веса)
  • Устойчивость к температурным перепадам (для наших широт характерны температурные колебания почти в 100°С, от лютых морозов и до изнуряющей жары)
  • Водонепроницаемость (осадки, конденсат, пар – все это необходимо учесть еще при проектировании)
  • Долговечность (крыша — это неотъемлемый элемент дома и должна служить долгие годы с минимальным ремонтом. Оптимальным считается срок службы около 25-30 лет)
  • Экологичность (все материалы, которые вы используете при строительстве, должны быть сертифицированы и не источать вредных испарений. Помните, что под этой крышей будет находиться вся ваша семья и использование токсичных или сомнительных материалов может быть опасно для здоровья)
  • Эстетичность (кровля должна сочетаться с отделкой дома и улучшать его внешний вид, иначе никакого удовольствия от проживания в этом доме вы не получите)

Помните, что до того, как начать укладывать кровлю, должна быть возведена обрешетка и на нее должен быть уложен материал как для теплоизоляции, так и для пароизоляции. Заранее позаботьтесь о том, как вы будете доставлять выбранную кровлю на стройплощадку и поднимать ее на крышу для последующей укладки.

Требования, которые предъявляют к современным крышам

К современным крышам предъявляется много требований. Крыша должна быть устойчива к постоянной нагрузке (имеется в виду собственная масса крыши), а также устойчива к временным нагрузкам (вес снега, порывы ветра). Она должна быть водонепроницаемой и влагоустойчивой (т.е. не пропускать влагу даже при длительном воздействии). Крыша должна быть устойчивой к воздействию мороза, солнечной радиации и уф-лучей, ко всем веществам, которые содержатся в воздухе и осадках, а также не должна трескаться, плавиться и коробиться. Полностью все требования изложены в следующих нормативных документах:

При выборе вида крыши и кровельных материалов необходимо учитывать как практичность, так и долговечность конструкции, а также уделять особое внимание тому, как долго служит выбранное кровельное покрытие, насколько оно удобно в укладке и какие нюансы эксплуатации имеет.

Но не забывайте также и о том, что крыша – важная часть вашего дома и она должна устраивать вас еще и по своим эстетическим характеристикам.


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